- When charging now-former Officer Derek Chauvin Friday with the third-degree murder of George Floyd, the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s Office concluded that Floyd had not died of asphyxiation.
- This report, which was preliminary, outraged many online and led to Floyd’s family pursuing a second, independent autopsy.
- On Monday, both examinations released their findings. While both agreed Floyd died of homicide, their findings are different.
- Hennepin County determined Floyd died of “Cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression.”
- Meanwhile, the independent autopsy concluded that Floyd died of “mechanical asphyxiation.”
First Autopsy Releases Preliminary Report
The findings of two different autopsies give conflicting explanations as to how George Floyd died, though both have concluded that his death was a homicide.
The first autopsy was performed last week following Floyd’s death. It was conducted by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s Office.
On Friday, prosecutors charged now-former Officer Derek Chauvin with third-degree murder. With the charging, prosecutors included findings from the office’s preliminary report, which said the autopsy “revealed no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation.
“Mr. Floyd had underlying health conditions including coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease,” it added. “The combined effect of Mr. Floyd being restrained by the police, his underlying health conditions and any potential intoxicants in his system likely contributed to his death.”
Still, the report notes that the incident, which resulted in Chauvin pressing his knee into Floyd’s neck for at least eight minutes, was a contributing factor.
Though the report seemingly provided insight into Floyd’s death, it failed to satisfy many people. In fact, it even seemed to stoke mounting outrage.
Others called for a second, independent autopsy, which Floyd’s family announced it would pursue soon after the preliminary autopsy went public.
Alongside this, Floyd’s family said they were seeking to raise Chauvin’s murder charge from third- to first-degree.
First Autopsy Full Report
The Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s Office released its full report Monday, which listed Floyd’s manner of death as a homicide.
In that, the office listed Floyd’s cause of death as “cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression.”
Essentially, the report indicated that Floyd’s heart stopped beating and he went into cardiac arrest.
Among the “other significant conditions” listed in the report were Floyd’s pre-existing artery and heart diseases, as well as fentanyl intoxication and recent methamphetamine use. Notably, the report doesn’t go into detail about how much of each drug was in his system or how they may have contributed to his death.
Seemingly because of the heightened tension concerning the degree Chauvin’s murder charge and whether or not Chauvin explicitly intended to kill Floyd, the office also included this statement:
“Manner of death is not a legal determination of culpability or intent, and should not be used to usurp the judicial process. Such decisions are outside the scope of the Medical Examiner’s role or authority.”
That same day, prior to that report being released, Floyd’s family presented the findings of its second, independent autopsy.
While it also ultimately concludes that Floyd died by homicide, its reasoning was markedly different, determining that Floyd had died of “mechanical asphyxiation.”
The autopsy was conducted by former New York City chief medical examiner Michael Baden and the University of Michigan’s Allecia Wilson. Baden previously performed autopsies on Eric Garner and Michael Brown, who both died in 2014.
In this report, Baden and Wilson determined that Floyd specifically died of “asphyxiation from sustained pressure” after being pinned down by his neck and back.
Baden also said that he found hemorrhaging around Floyd’s right carotid artery that impeded blood flow to the brain.
“The compressive pressure of the neck and back are not seen at autopsy because the pressure has been released by the time the body comes to the medical examiner’s office,” Baden said in reference to why the first autopsy may not have concluded that Floyd died of asphyxia. “It can only be seen — serious compressive pressure on the neck and back can only be seen while the pressure is being applied or when, as in this instance, it is captured on video.”
Also contrary to the results of that first autopsy, Baden said that no underlying medical condition caused or contributed to Floyd’s death and Floyd was in good health.
“Essentially, George died because he needed a breath,” Ben Crump, the family’s lawyer, said.
“For George Floyd, the ambulance was his hearse,” he added.
Crump also focused on the fact that the autopsy determined Floyd died not just from sustained pressure on the neck but also on the back. Using that as a platform, Crump further called for the arrests of the other three officers with Chauvin that day, two of which appear to be on top of or above Floyd’s back in a viral video.
In the announcement, Crump continued to call for Chauvin’s murder charge to be increased from third to first-degree murder.
For Chauvin to be charged and convicted of first-degree murder, he would have to be found guilty of not only actively trying to kill Floyd but also of pre-meditating it. Essentially, prosecutors would need to come up with evidence that Chauvin had a specific motive for killing Floyd.
Conversely, third-degree murder does not require an intent to kill. It only needs to prove that the perpetrator who caused someone’s death in a dangerous act did so “without regard for human life.”
See what others are saying: (The Washington Post) (CBS News) (CNN)
Florida Cracks Down on “Vaccine Tourism”
- Florida is now requiring that people show proof of either full-time or part-time residency in the state in order to get vaccinated against COVID-19.
- The state has been hit with “vaccine tourism” as many people, predominantly wealthy individuals, fly to the state from other parts of the U.S. and abroad just to get the shot.
- So far, nearly 41,000 of the 1.3 million doses administered in Florida went to out-of-staters, though it is unclear if all those people were tourists or if this figure includes some part-time residents.
Florida Requires Proof of Residency
Florida is cracking down on “vaccine tourism” and requiring that people show proof of either full-time or part-time residency in the state in order to get a COVID-19 shot.
Previously the state was allowing anyone 65 and older, including non-residents, to get the vaccine. This resulted in people flying to the Sunshine State from across the U.S. and abroad just for the purpose of receiving it.
According to state data, nearly 41,000 of the 1.3 million doses Florida has administered have gone to out-of-staters. It is unclear if all these out-of-staters are tourists or if this figure includes some part-time residents.
Now, people must show a form of identification like a driver’s license or mortgage payment to receive it. Exceptions will be made for healthcare workers.
Vaccine Supply Continues to Be Limited
Wealthy people in particular were quick to schedule travel plans to Florida for this reason. According to the Wall Street Journal, there was an influx of Canadians booking private jets to Florida. Some were looking to book flights there and back on the same day, leaving just enough time for them to get vaccinated against the coronavirus.
Meanwhile, people in Florida and across the country are waiting in long lines and struggling to book appointments on glitching websites to get their shots. Vaccine supply continues to be incredibly limited and not everyone in high-risk groups have received them.
Florida Governor Ron DeSantis said this rule is not made to impact snowbirds, people who live in Florida during the winter to escape cold weather up north.
“They go to doctors here or whatever, that’s fine, DeSantis said, according to CNN. “What we don’t want is tourists, foreigners. We want to put seniors first, but we obviously want to put people that live here first in line.”
See what others are saying: (Wall Street Journal) (CNN) (Travel + Leisure)
Amanda Gorman Wows the Nation With “The Hill We Climb”
- Amanda Gorman, a 22-year-old poet, impressed the nation when she read “The Hill We Climb” at President Biden’s inauguration, making her the youngest inaugural poet in the nation’s history.
- Gorman’s said the Jan. 6 attack on the nation’s Capitol inspired her to focus on a message of hope, community, and healing in her poem.
- Big names like Oprah Winfrey, Anderson Cooper, Barack Obama, and Lin-Manuel Miranda have all praised her work.
Amanda Gorman Becomes Youngest Inaugural Poet
Inaugural poet Amanda Gorman wowed the nation on Wednesday as she spoke of healing, unity, hope, and what it means to be American while reading her poem, “The Hill We Climb.”
At 22-years-old Gorman is the youngest inaugural poet in the nation’s history. Born and raised in Los Angeles, she was the youth poet laureate of Los Angeles in 2014 at the age of 16. She then became the first national youth poet laureate in 2017.
Now, her books are topping Amazon’s Best Sellers list and they are not even scheduled to be released until the fall.
First Lady Dr. Jill Biden became a fan of Gorman after watching her give a reading at the Library of Congress. She then suggested that Gorman be a part of the ceremony.
“Let the globe, if nothing else, say this is true: That even as we grieved, we grew. That even as we hurt, we hoped That even as we tired, we tried,” Gorman recited during inauguration. “That we’ll forever be tied together, victorious. Not because we will never again know defeat but because we will never again sow division.”
Like President Biden, Gorman has struggled with a speech impediment and has been open about her experience overcoming it. She actually used poetry as a tool to correct it. First, she used it as a way of expressing herself without having to speak. Then she used it to bring her poems to life.
“Once I arrived at the point in my life in high school, where I said, ‘you know what? Writing my poems on the page isn’t enough for me,” she told CBS News. “I have to give them breath, and life, I have to perform them as I am.’ That was the moment that I was able to grow past my speech impediment.”
What Inspired “The Hill We Climb”
Gorman said the inaugural committee gave her freedom and flexibility when it came to choosing what to write about. She was well on her way before the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. Those events then influenced her writing.
“It energized me even more to believe that much more firmly in a message of hope, community and healing. I felt like that was the type of poem that I needed to write and it was the type of poem that the country and the world needed to hear,” she told CNN’s Anderson Cooper.
That message came across clearly and the insurrection was depicted in part of “The Hill We Climb.”
“It’s because being American is more than a pride we inherit. It’s the past we step into and how we repair it. We’ve seen a force that would shatter our nation rather than share it, would destroy our country if it meant delaying democracy and this effort very nearly succeeded,” she said. “But while democracy can be periodically delayed it can never be permanently defeated. In this truth, in this faith we trust. For while we have our eyes on the future history has its eyes on us.”
Nation Impressed by Gorman
“Wow…Wow, I just, wow you’re awesome,” Cooper said when closing his interview with her. “I am so transfixed.”
Lin-Manuel Miranda also cheered Gorman on. “The Hill We Climb” notably references a line of scripture that appears in a “Hamilton” song. Gorman also said she used to sing the song “Aaron Burr, Sir” to help her say her R sounds and correct her speech impediment.
“I have never been prouder to see another young woman rise!” Oprah Winfrey wrote. “Brava Brava Amanda Gorman! Maya Angelou is cheering—and so am I.”
Winfrey also gave Gorman a ring with a caged bird on it—a reference to the famous Angelou poem— which Gorman wore during the inauguration.
Actor Mark Ruffalo joined the onslaught of praise, saying that her words will lead the nation.
Former President Barack Obama echoed that idea as well, and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said Gorman promised to run for president one day.
See what others are saying: (CBS News) (New York Times) (Los Angeles Times)
SAT Drops Subject Tests and Optional Essay Section
- The College Board will discontinue SAT subject tests effective immediately and will scrap the optional essay section in June.
- The organization cited the coronavirus pandemic as part of the reason for accelerating these changes.
- Regarding subject tests, the College Board said the other half of the decision rested on the fact that Advanced Placement tests are now more accessible to low-income students and students of color, making subject tests unnecessary.
- It also said it plans to launch a digital version of the SAT in the near future, despite failing to implement such a plan last year after a previous announcement.
College Board Ends Subject Tests and Optional Essay
College Board announced Tuesday that it will scrap the SAT’s optional essay section, as well as subject tests.
Officials at the organization cited the COVID-19 pandemic as part of the reason for these changes, saying is has “accelerated a process already underway at the College Board to simplify our work and reduce demands on students.”
The decision was also made in part because Advanced Placement tests, which College Board also administers, are now available to more low-income students and students of color. Thus, College Board has said this makes SAT subject tests unnecessary.
While subject tests will be phased out for international students, they have been discontinued effective immediately in the U.S.
Regarding the optional essay, College Board said high school students are now able to express their writing skills in a variety of ways, a factor which has made the essay section less necessary.
With several exceptions, it will be discontinued in June.
The Board Will Implement an Online SAT Test
In its announcement, College Board also said it plans to launch a revised version of the SAT that’s aimed at making it “more flexible” and “streamlined” for students to take the test online.
In April 2020, College Board announced it would be launching a digital SAT test in the fall if schools didn’t reopen. The College Board then backtracked on its plans for a digital test in June, before many schools even decided they would remain closed.
According to College Board, technological challenges led to the decision to postpone that plan.
For now, no other details about the current plan have been released, though more are expected to be revealed in April.