- A Boeing 737 MAX 8 plane chartered by Ethiopian Airlines crashed, killing all 157 people on board.
- The plane is the second 737 MAX 8 to crash since October, when a Lion Air flight crashed off the coast of Indonesia, killing 189 people.
- As a result, 22 airlines have grounded their 737 MAX 8 models.
Crash Outside of Addis Ababa
Boeing is facing massive backlash after a brand new Boeing 737 MAX 8 crashed outside of Addis Ababa on Sunday, killing all 157 people on board the plane.
Of the 157 people on board Flight 302, 149 were passengers, and eight were crew members. The victims came from over 35 different countries and included at least 22 employees of United Nations-affiliated agencies, who were flying to Nairobi to attend a conference.
The flight took off at 8:38 a.m local time and was chartered by Ethiopian Airlines, one of Africa’s largest carriers. Shortly after take-off, the pilot of Flight 302 reportedly made a distress call and requested to return to the airport, which he was granted.
The last transmission from Flight 302 was reported at 8:41 am. Just six minutes after take-off, Flight 302 disappeared from the radar, which is the time it is believed to have crashed.
An eyewitness who saw the crash reported that the plane was “swerving and dipping” before it crashed about 40 miles outside of Addis Ababa.
Ethiopian authorities announced they would investigate the crash with assistance from the U.S., Kenya, and others. Forensic experts from Israel also came to help with the investigation.
Members of the Red Cross could be seen sifting through debris, recovering passports, and other personal documents, among other things.
While the cause of the crash is still unknown, Ethiopian Airlines tweeted that the Digital Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder (also known as the plane’s “black box”) had been recovered.
The black box records a number of inputs like the sounds in the cockpit. That also includes the pilot’s conversations. The recorders are specifically designed to aid investigations in aviation accidents, and the recovery of the black box is expected to provide more information about what caused the crash.
Boeing 737 MAX
If Boeing 737-MAX 8 sounds familiar, it’s because just 4 months ago another Boeing 737-MAX 8 plane known as Lion Air flight 610 crashed off the coast of Indonesia, killing 189 people.
The circumstances surrounding both flights are eerily similar.
The pilot of the Lion Air flight also reported issues within minutes of taking off from Tangerang airport in Jakarta. The pilot also asked air traffic control if they could return to the airport, right before the flight went off the radar.
It was believed the flight crashed within 12 minutes of taking off.
Boeing’s latest iteration of the 737 is the world’s bestselling airliner. More than 300 Boeing 737-MAX planes are currently in operation, and since 2017, more than 5,000 have been ordered worldwide.
That means that Boeing has 4,700 unfilled orders for 737s, which represents 80% of Boeing’s orders backlog. Essentially all 737 orders are for MAX versions.
Boeing released a statement following the crash, saying: “Boeing is deeply saddened to learn of the passing of the passengers and crew on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a 737 MAX 8 airplane.”
Boeing also stated that they would send a technical team to the crash site to “provide technical assistance under the direction of the Ethiopia Accident Investigation Bureau and U.S. National Transportation Safety Board.”
However, Boeing has also said that it does not have new plans for guidance. Charlie Miller, Boeing’s vice president of communications, said in a statement: “The investigation is in its early stages, but at this point, based on the information available, we do not have any basis to issue new guidance to operators.”
Unsurprisingly, Boeing has taken massive heat for the crash. Boeing’s stock dropped more than 12% on Monday morning, though it seemed to rebound some later in the day.
However, according to CNN, the drop puts Boeing on track for its worst day since the first day of trading following the 9/11 terror attacks.
To make matters even worse for Boeing, numerous countries have responded to the crash by grounding their planes.
As of Monday morning, 22 airlines around the world have grounded their 737 MAX 8 planes.
Notably, the Indonesian Transport Ministry announced today that they will temporarily ground of all Boeing 737 MAX 8 planes operated by Indonesian carriers.
This is especially significant because Indonesia had previously grounded all MAX 8’s in the country following the Lion Air crash, but after inspections, the planes were declared safe to fly.
China also announced it would ground all its 737 MAX 8’s, a move that many consider a big deal because China is one of Boeings biggest markets. Nearly a dozen Chinese airlines have ordered 180 planes from Boeing, and only 76 of them have been delivered.
About 85% of Boeing’s Chinese airline orders that have not been filled yet are for 737 MAX planes. Additionally, Boeing has predicted that China will become the world’s first trillion-dollar market for jets within the next few years.
Ethiopian Airlines for its part took more drastic measures, announcing it will take all of its 737 MAX planes out of service entirely. This also has broader implications for the African continent because Ethiopian Airlines is widely considered the best-managed airline in Africa.
Furthermore, the state-owned airline has ambitions of becoming the gateway to the continent and has been expanding its routes and infrastructure significantly.
However, not everyone is grounding their planes. No U.S. airlines have grounded any of their 737 MAX jets. Together, American Airlines, Alaska Air, United Airlines, and Southwest Airlines own 65 737 MAX jets, which is only part of 548 jets they have ordered.
Even if they did ground those 65 jets, it would not significantly disrupt US airlines, because they have huge fleets of other planes.
Debate on Automation
Sunday’s crash has ignited the debate on automation and aviation.
The latest iteration of the 737 has been noted for its increased capabilities of flying autonomously, and while that might sound like it would increase safety, that is not always the case.
The Guardian’s, Gwyn Topham compares this to self-driving cars, writing: “It is notable that insurers considering driverless cars worry most about the period when highly autonomous vehicles will coexist with human drivers, the uncertain interface between human and artificial intelligence.”
A big part of the controversy around this comes from pilots around the world following the Lion Air crash. The pilots believed that small software modifications to the MAX 8’s autopilot had not been fully communicated to them, and they were not subject to new training to deal with that software.
Specifically, one new feature of the 737 MAX 8 is that the plane automatically corrects if it believes an angle it is flying at puts it at risk of stalling, a safety feature that as reportedly different from what 737 pilots were used to.
This feature, in particular, is a big deal because the black box from Lion Air flight 610 suggested the pilots of flight had been wrestling with this issue.
Boeing argued that if pilots followed procedures, there should not be a problem. However, past crashes have shown that the sensors which aircraft systems rely on can malfunction. They also show that many pilots who have become used to certain technology do not always know what to do when things go wrong.
Which begs the question of whether or not autonomous technology is worth the risk.
Ethiopian Airlines has said that the pilot of Flight 302 was extremely experienced, with 8,000 hours of flying time. However, aviation experts have criticized the lack of experience of his co-pilot, who only had 200 hours.
Whether or not this will hurt Boeing’s sales will remain to be seen. If anything, it seems like airlines that have requested 737 Max’s might not want those anymore. Since those compose over 80% of Boeing’s backlog, that could seriously harm the company.
See what others are saying: (New York Times) (CNN) (The Guardian)
Leaked Documents and Photos Give Unprecedented Glimpse Inside Xinjiang’s Detention Camps
The so-called vocational schools, which China claims Uyghurs enter willingly as students, oversee their detainees with watchtowers armed with machine guns and sniper rifles, as well as guards instructed to shoot to kill anyone trying to escape.
Detained for Growing a Beard
The BBC and a consortium of investigative journalists have authenticated and published a massive trove of leaked documents and photographs exposing the Chinese government’s persecution of Uyghur Muslims in unprecedented detail.
According to the outlet, an anonymous source hacked several police computer servers in the northwestern Xinjiang province, then sent what has been dubbed the Xinjiang police files to the scholar Dr. Adrian Zenz, who gave them to reporters.
Among the files are more than 5,000 police photographs of Uyghurs taken between January and July 2018, with accompanying data indicating at least 2,884 of them were detained.
Some of the photos show guards standing nearby with batons.
The youngest Uyghur photographed was 15 at the time of their detention, and the oldest was 73.
One document is a list titled “Relatives of the Detained,” which contains thousands of people placed under suspicion for guilt by association with certain family members. It includes a woman whose son authorities claimed had “strong religious leanings” because he didn’t smoke or drink alcohol. He was jailed for ten years on terrorism charges.
The files also include 452 spreadsheets with information on more than a quarter of a million Uyghurs, some of whom were detained retroactively for offenses committed years or even decades ago.
One man was jailed for ten years in 2017 because he “studied Islamic scripture with his grandmother” for a few days in 2010.
Authorities targeted hundreds more for their mobile phone use, like listening to “illegal lectures” or downloading encrypted apps. Others were punished for not using their phones enough, with “phone has run out of credit” listed as evidence they were trying to evade digital surveillance.
One man’s offense was “growing a beard under the influence of religious extremism.”
The Most Militarized Schools in the World
The files include documents outlining conditions inside Xinjiang’s detention camps, or so-called “Vocational Skills Education and Training Centers.”
Armed guards occupy every part of the facilities, with machine guns and sniper rifles stationed on watchtowers. Police protocols instruct guards to shoot to kill any so-called “students” trying to escape if they fail to stop after a warning shot.
Any apprehended escapees are to be taken away for interrogation while camp management focuses on “stabilizing other students’ thoughts and emotions.”
The BBC used the documents to reconstruct one of the camps, which data shows holds over 3,700 detainees guarded by 366 police officers who oversee them during lessons.
If a “student” must be transferred to another facility, the protocols say, police should blindfold them, handcuff them and shackle their feet.
Dr. Zenz published a peer-reviewed paper on the Xinjiang police files, in which he found that more than 12% of Uyghur adults were detained over 2017 and 2018.
“Scholars have argued that political paranoia is a common feature of atrocity crimes,” he wrote. “Here, it is suggested that the pre-emptive internment of large numbers of ordinary citizens can be explained as a devolution into political paranoia that promotes exaggerated threat perceptions.”
See what others are saying: (BBC) (Newsweek) (The Guardian)
Biden Vows to Defend Taiwan if Attacked by China
Some praised the remarks for clarifying U.S. foreign policy, while others feared they could escalate tensions with China.
Biden’s Remarks Create Confusion
During a Monday press conference in Tokyo, U.S. President Joe Biden said the United States would intervene to defend Taiwan in the event of a Chinese attack.
The remark caught many off guard because it contradicted decades of traditional U.S. foreign policy toward China.
A reporter said, “You didn’t want to get involved in the Ukraine conflict militarily for obvious reasons. Are you willing to get involved militarily to defend Taiwan if it comes to that?”
“Yes,” Biden answered. “That’s a commitment we made. We are not — look, here’s the situation. We agree with a One China policy. We signed onto it and all the attendant agreements made from there.”
“But the idea that it can be taken by force — just taken by force — is just not appropriate,” he continued. “It will dislocate the entire region and be another action similar to what happened in Ukraine.”
Beijing considers the Taiwanese island to be a breakaway province, but Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, has claimed to represent the real historical lineage of China.
Since 1972, the U.S. has officially recognized only one China, with its capital in Beijing. However, Washington maintains extensive informal diplomatic ties with Taipei and provides military assistance through weapons and training.
Successive U.S. presidents have also committed to a policy of “strategic ambiguity,” refusing to promise or rule out a direct military intervention in case China attacks Taiwan.
The strategy is meant to deter China while avoiding a hard commitment to any action.
Biden Sparks Controversy
The White House quickly sent a statement to reporters appearing to walk back Biden’s remark.
“As the president said, our policy has not changed,” the statement said. “He reiterated our One China Policy and our commitment to peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait. He also reiterated our commitment under the Taiwan Relations Act to provide Taiwan with the military means to defend itself.”
Monday was not the first time Biden made similar remarks regarding China and Taiwan.
Last August, he promised that “we would respond” if there was an attack against a fellow member of NATO and then added, “same with Japan, same with South Korea, same with Taiwan.”
In October, he again told CNN’s Anderson Cooper that the U.S. would defend Taiwan from a Chinese attack, prompting the White House to hurriedly walk back his statement.
Monday’s remark was received with support as well as criticism.
“Strategic ambiguity is over. Strategic clarity is here,” Tweeted Matthew Kroenig, professor of government at Georgetown University. “This is the third time Biden has said this. Good. China should welcome this. Washington is helping Beijing to not miscalculate.”
“It is truly dangerous for the president to keep misstating U.S. policy toward Taiwan,” historian Stephen Wertheim wrote in a tweet. “How many more times will this happen?”
“The West’s robust response to Russian aggression in Ukraine could serve to deter China from invading Taiwan, but Biden’s statement risks undoing the potential benefit and instead helping to bring about a Taiwan conflict,” he added. “Self-injurious and entirely unforced.”
Biden also unveiled the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF), a trade agreement signed by the U.S. and 12 Asian nations.
The agreement appeared to many like another move to cut off China from regional trade pacts and supply chains in Washington’s strategic competition with Beijing.
See what others are saying: (CNN) (The New York Times) (The South China Morning Post)
Russia Takes Over 900 Azovstal Fighters Prisoner as Mariupol Surrenders
Ukraine said the soldiers successfully completed their mission, but the fall of Mariupol represents a strategic win for Putin.
Azovstal Waves the White Flag
Russia’s foreign ministry announced on Wednesday that it had captured 959 Ukrainians from the Azovstal steelworks, where besieged soldiers have maintained the last pocket of resistance in Mariupol for weeks.
A ministry spokesperson said in a statement that 51 were being treated for injuries, and the rest were sent to a former prison colony in the town of Olenivka in a Russian-controlled area of Donetsk.
The defense ministry released videos of what it claimed were Ukrainian fighters receiving care at a hospital in the Russian-controlled town of Novoazovsk. In one, a soldier tells the camera he is being treated “normally” and that he is not being psychologically pressured, though it is unclear whether he is speaking freely.
It was unclear if any Ukrainians remained in Azovstal, but Denis Pushilin, the head of the self-proclaimed republic of Donetsk, said in a statement Wednesday that the “commanders of the highest level” were still hiding in the plant.
Previously, estimates put the number of soldiers inside Azovstal around 1,000.
Ukraine officially gave up Mariupol on Monday, when the first Azovstal fighters began surrendering.
Reuters filmed dozens of wounded Ukrainians being driven away in buses marked with the Russian pro-war “Z” symbol.
Ukraine’s deputy defense minister said in a Tuesday statement that the Ukrainian prisoners would be swapped in an exchange for captured Russians. But numerous Russian officials have signaled that the Ukrainian soldiers should be tried.
Mariupol Falls into Russian Hands
After nearly three months of bombardment that left Mariupol in ruins, Russia’s combat mission in the city has ended.
The sprawling complex of underground tunnels, caverns, and bunkers beneath Azovstal provided a defensible position for the Ukrainians there, and they came to represent the country’s resolve in the face of Russian aggression for many spectators.
Earlier this month, women, children, and the elderly were evacuated from the plant.
The definitive capture of Mariupol, a strategic port city, is a loss for Ukraine and a boon for Russia, which can now establish a land bridge between Crimea and parts of Eastern Ukraine controlled by Russian separatists. The development could also free up Russian troops around Mariupol to advance on the East, while additional reinforcements near Kharkiv descend from the north, potentially cutting off Ukrainian forces from the rest of the country.
The Ukrainian military has framed events in Mariupol as at least a partial success, arguing that the defenders of Azovstal completed their mission by tying down Russian troops and resources in the city and giving Ukrainians elsewhere more breathing room.
It claimed that doing so prevented Russia from rapidly capturing the city of Zaporizhzhia further to the west.